Indian Constitution: Framing, Implementing and Structure

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Indian Constitution 
Indian Constitution 

Framing of Constitution

There can be two methods followed framing of Constitution

Can be framed by Parliament

Can be framed by a separate Constituent Assembly

The first time in the world America framed Constituent Assembly in 1787 in Philadelphia.

While Explaining the meaning of ‘Swaraj’ in ‘Young India’ new paper, Gandhiji indicated in 1922 that the Constitution of India would be drafted by Indians.

The Nehru committee drafted for the first time, a constitution for India in 1928.

Three Round Table Conferences were organized by the British Government to discuss constitutional reforms in India

Round Table Conference Held Between
First conference Nov 1930 to Jan 1931
Second conference Sep 1931 to Dec 1931
Third conference Nov 1932 to Dec 1932

For the first time, M.N. Roy put forward the idea of a constituent assembly in 1934

The congress officially demanded the constituent assembly in 1935

The British Government accepted in principle, the demand of constituent assembly in 1940 which is called “August Offer

In 1942Cripps commission was appointed for framing of an independent constitution for India

In 1946 constituent assembly was setup

Number of members in the constituent assembly

Province Vs Number of Members Before Partition After Partition
Provincial 292 229
Princely State 93 70
Chief commissioner’s Area 4
Total 389 299

Each province was allocated seats in proportion to its population. Also the seats were further allocated to three communities – Muslim, Sikhs and General in proportion to their population. Roughly one member was to represent a population of 10 lakh.

Each provincial assembly elected its members for the Constituent Assembly through the single transferable vote system of proportional representation. The method of representation in princely states was to be decided with their consultation

The election for a constituent assembly was held between July & September of 1946

On 9th Dec 1946: The first session of assembly held

  • The Muslim League boycotted the session
  • Dr. Sachidananda Sinha was appointed as temporary president of the assembly

11th Dec 1946: Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected as the permanent president

13th Dec 1946: Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru introduced his historic objective resolution

22nd Jan 1947: Historic objective resolution was passed

22nd July 1947 : National Flag was approved by constituent assembly

29th Aug 1947 : Drafting committee formed

Drafting committee was most important committee out of total 22 committees to frame the Constitution.

Read More:-Vande Mataram (The National Song of India): Facts at a Glance

 

Drafting committee had 7 members including chairmanship

  1. Dr B.R. Ambedkar (Chairman)
  2. N. Gopalswami Ayyangar
  3. Alladi Krishna Swami Ayyar
  4. K.M Munshi
  5. Syed Mohammed Saadullah
  6. B.L Mittar (replaced by N. Madhav Rao due to ill health)
  7. D.P. Khaitan ( as he died in 1948, he was replaced by T.T. Krishnamachari)

The draft Constitution was passed by the Assembly on 26th Nov 1949 with signatures of 284 members

Members of the Assembly signed two copies of the handwritten document of final Constitution (one each in Hindi and English) on 24 January 1950

The last meeting of constituent assembly held on 24th Jan 1950

24th Jan 1950 : The Constituent Assembly came to end; It is emerged as provisional parliament on 26 January till the elections of Lok sabha. The President of Assembly, Dr Rajendra Prasad was appointed as the first president of the Indian republic till the elections

 

 

26th Jan 1950 constitution came into force

At the time of approval Indian Constitution consists of 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules

First constitutional amendment was taken place in 1951

First time Parliament elections were conducted in 1952

Important Committees formed to look after the activities of framing of the constitution

Chairperson Committee
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Drafting committee
Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad Steering commite, Finance and staff committee
Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad Rules of Procedure Committee
Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad Ad hoc committee on the National Flag
Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad Finance and staff committee
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru Union Powers Committee
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru Union Constitution Committee
Sardar Vallabai Patel Committee on Fundamental Rights & Minorities
Sardar Vallabai Patel Provincial Constitution Committee
K.M.Munshi The steering committee

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