Indian Constitution – Facts
There are 101 amendments made to the Indian Constitution to date.
It took 2 years, 11 months & 18 days in framing the Constitution.
An amount of Rs 64 lacs was spent.
165 meetings held.
60 constitutions referred.
Constituent Assembly had 9 female members.
There was 15 nominated members in Constituent Assembly(Dr Sarvepally RadhaKrishnan & K.T Shah are key from them).
Symbol(Seal) of Constituent Assembly was Elephant.
The original Constitution of India is hand-written with beautiful calligraphy by Prem Behari Narain Raizada.
Constitution was entirely handcrafted by the artists of Shanthiniketan under the guidance of Acharya Nandalal Bose and Beohar Rammanohar Sinha.
The calligraphy of Hindi version of the original constitution was done by Vasant Krishan Vaidya and elegantly decorated and illuminated by Nand Lal Bose.
Original hand-written Constitution is now preserved in a special helium-filled case in the library of the Parliament of India.
Drafting committee of Constituent Assembly was set up on 29th Aug 1947. It was most important committee among all the committees. It had total 7 members including chairman.
- Dr B.R. Ambedkar (Chairman)
- N. Gopalswami Ayyangar
- Alladi Krishna Swami Ayyar
- K.M Munshi
- Syed Mohammed Saadullah
- B.L Mittar (replaced by N. Madhav Rao due to ill health)
- D.P. Khaitan ( as he died in 1948, he was replaced by T.T. Krishnamachari)
Sources of Constitution
i. Government of India Act, 1935:
Federal Scheme, Office of Governor, Judiciary, Public Service Commissions, Emergency provisions, Administrative details.
ii. British Constitution:
Parliamentary government, Rule of Law, Legislative procedure, Single citizenship, Cabinet System, Prerogative Writs.
iii. US Constitution:
Fundamental Rights, Independence of Judiciary, Judicial Review, Impeachment of the President, Removal of Supreme Court and High Court judges and post of Vice-President.
iv. Irish Constitution:
Directive Principles of State Policy, the nomination of members to Rajya Sabha and method of election of President, Federation with a strong center, Vesting of residual powers in the Center, the appointment of State Governors by the Center and advisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
v. Canadian Constitution:
Federation with a strong center, residual powers with the center, appointment of state governors by the center and advisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
vi. Australian Constitution:
Concurrent List, Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament.
vii. Wiemar Constitution:
Suspension of Fundamental Rights during Emergency.
viii. Soviet Constitution:
Fundamental duties, the ideal of justice (social, economic and political) in the Preamble.
ix. French Constitution:
Republic and the ideals of liberty equality and fraternity in the Preamble.
x. South African Constitution:
Procedure for amendment, the Constitution and election of the members of Rajya Sabha.
xi. Japanese Constitution:
Procedure established by law.The drafted Constitution was finally adopted on November 26, 1949.
Both Rigid and Flexible Constitution
On the basis of Amendment procedure and Law-Making procedure, the constitutions are of two kinds:
- The Rigid Constitution: The Majority is required for Amending the Constitution is higher in comparison to the majority required in Law-Making
- The Flexible Constitution: The Amendment to the Constitution can be made by the same procedure that is required for the enactment of laws.
The Indian Constitution is both Rigid and Flexible. The Indian Constitution can be amended by Simple Majority, the same as required for enacting the laws, whereas other provisions of the Constitution can be amended by the special majority.
How to amend the Constitution of India
The Constitution of India can be amended in three ways
- By the simple majority of Parliament
- By the Spacial Majority in both Houses of Parliament with the consent of more than half of the States
- By the Spacial Majority in both the Houses of Parliament