the Indian Constitution
The indian Constitution of India (IAST: Bhāratīya Saṃvidhāna) is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political
|Art. #||Article Description of Indian Constitution|
|1||Name and territory of the Union (Bharat, India).
The territory of India is classified into three
Hint to remember: First thing we do to our newborn baby name the baby; Named new country as Bharath or India; Article also talks about territories (states, Union territories & that may be acquired in future)
|2||Admission or establishment of new states by Parliament through law|
|3||Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States
with this article…
a) form a new state by separation or by uniting with another state
b) increase or reduce the area of state
c) alter boundaries or name of the sate
Hint: 29th State ‘Telangana’ is separated as per article 3;
|4||Laws made under articles 2 & 3 to provide for the amendment of the first and fourth schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters|
Formation of States and Union territories in India
At the time of Indian Independence, India had two types of political units, i.e., British provinces and Princely states.
The Indian Independence Act 1947 gave three options to Princely states i) Join India, ii) Join Pakistan or iii) Remain Independent.
Out of the 552 princely states, 549 joined Initially. Three were merged with India later on viz. Hyderabad by police action, Junagarh by referendum and Kashmir by Instrument of Accession
In 1948 June, the Linguistic province’s commission was appointed under the chairmanship of SK Dhar. It rejected the linguistic reorganization of states.
Congress in its Jaipur session in 1948 appointed a three-member committee, also known as the JVP committee(Jawahar Lal Nehru, Vallabhai Patel & Pattabhi Sitaramayya) to study the Dhar’s report, Even JVP committee also rejected linguistic states.
Read More:-Indian Constitutional Development in India
When Andhra was formed on the linguistic basis from Madras in October 1953 there were demands that came for the establishment of states on linguistic bases.
As a result, the States Reorganization Commission(SRC) was appointed in 1953. This commission was headed by Fazal Ali. Other 2 members were H.N.Kunjru & K.MPanitkkar
This commission submitted its report in 1955 which came into force from 1st November 1956 as States Reorganisation Act.
This commission accepted the theory of Linguistic States rejected the theory of ‘One Language-One State’.
It suggested for re-organization of 27 states into 16 States and 3 Union Territories.
States re-organization Act is approved in 1956 by Parliament to give effect to the commissions’ recommendations, 14 states and 6 U.Ts were created on 1st November 1956.
At present India consists of 29 states and 7 UTs.
Formation of STATES and UNION TERRITORIES
The first state created on linguistic basis in 1956
Maharashtra & Gujarat(1960)
The bilingual State of Bombay was divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat(15th State)
Dadra & Nagar Haveli (1961)
The Portuguese ruled this territory till 1954. By the 10th Indian Constitution Amendment Act 1961, it became the Union Territory of India.
Goa, Daman & Diu(1961)
India acquired these three territories from the Portuguese by means of Police action in 1961.
Goa, Daman & Diu were added as a Uts of India by the 12th Constitution Amendment Act, 1962.
Later in 1987, Goa was made as a separate State.
The territory of Pondicherry consists of French establishments(Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam) in India.
French ruled this terrotory until 1954 and handed over these 4 estalblishments/districts to India in 1954
From 1954 to 1962 Pondicherry remained as acquired territory and by the 14th Constitution Amendment Act, Pondicherry was made UT in 1962
The State of Nagaland Act 1962 formed the new State of Nagaland with effect from 1 February 1964
It comprises the territory of the Naga Hills and Tuensang(it was a tribal area in sixth Schedule forming part of Assam)
in 1966, Punjab was bifurcated and Haryana state formed as the 17th State and Chandigarh as UT
It was upgraded from Union Territory to a State in 1971. (18th State of India)
Manipur, Tripra and Meghalaya (1972)
In 1972, the two UTs of Manipur and Tripura and the sub-state of Meghalaya got statehood as 19th, 20th and 21st States of India respectively.
Sikkim got the status of an associated State in 1974 by 35th Constitution Amendment Act.
Sikkim got full-fledges State status in 1975 by 36th Constitution Amendment Act.
Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Goa(1987)
Mizoram got statehood in 1986. (previously Mizoram was UT)
Arunachal Pradesh, which was UT was given a status of State of Arunachal Pradesh Act, 1986.
Goa became the 25th State of India
Chhattisgarh became the 26th State of India on November 2000.
Uttarakhand became 27th State of India in November 2000 with the name of Uttaranchal in 2007. It was renamed as Uttarakhand in 2007
It became the 28th State of India on 15th November 2000
It is separated from Andhra Pradesh and made as India’s 29th State on 2nd June 2014.
- The 1st Union Territory is Andaman and Nicobar Island
- According to 14th Amendment Act, 1962 Legislative Assembly was established to Pondicherry
- According to 69th Amendment Act, 1991, Delhi has its own legislative assemblies and was named as National Capital Territory of Delhi
- Union Territories are administered by Lt. Commissioner / Chief Administrative officer who are being appointed by the president of India
- In 2006 Pondicherry renamed as Puducherry
National Capital Territory of Delhi
As per 69th Amendment of constitution act 1999, the Union Territory of Delhi is known as National Capital Territory of Delhi.
This act did not give status of State to Delhi, it continues to be a UT. But in Delhi a Legislative Assembly of 70 members with limited powers has been provided.
The Administrator of Delhi is called Lt Governor. He is appointed by the President.
For the administration of Delhi, besides the Lt. Governor, there shall be a council of Ministers whose membership will not exceed 10% of the total membership.
i.e there can max 7 councils of ministers including Chief minister.