Software is usually classified into specific categories in the computer world:
1. System Software
2. Application Software
3. Utility Software
1. System software: This includes all programs, languages, and documentation supplied by the manufacturer of the computer. This type of software is needed to efficiently and easily use a computer. These programs allow the application developer to write and develop their own programs.
2. Application software: These programs are developed by the user to perform some specific tasks for the organization. For example, a payroll system is called as application software to calculate the salary of an organization’s employees.
3. Utility Software: Utility software can be considered as application software or a system software, which is often used in program development.
A programming language has words, symbols, and usage rules that relate to grammar that allows people to communicate with a computer. It allows people to communicate with computers. Understanding of computer software is incomplete with a basic knowledge of programming, programming languages allow programmers and end-users to develop programs that are excluded by users to develop programs executed by computers. There are many programming languages in the world today.
Each of the languages has its own unique vocabulary, grammar, and usage. Some of these languages are built to serve a special purpose, while others are more flexible and general-purpose and are suitable for many types of applications. However, programming languages must complete the following tasks:
1. Input / Output
2. Text manipulations / calculations
3. Reasoning / Comparison
4. Storage / Retrieval
Classification of programming language
Machine language is the lowest form of computer language. The programs were written in binary-based machine level language in first-generation computers only. The computer understands this language only at its lowest level.
An instruction in machine language has two parts:
1. Op-code: This is the first part and command or operation and it tells the computer what to do.
2. Operand: The second part of the instruction is the operand and it tells the computer where to search or store the data or instructions to manipulate. The number of operands in an instrument varies from computer to computer. In a single operand machine, the binary equivalent of “ADD0481” can add the value in storage location 0481 to the value stored in the arithmetic and logic unit. The single operand format is popular in most small microcomputers while the two operand structure is found in most other machines.
In machine level language the set of instructions can be divided into four.
1. Arithmetic – adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing
2. Controlled-load, store, jump instructions
3. Input-Output – Read and Write
4. Direct use – halt, start and end
No arithmetic or comparative operations are performed in the primary memory of the computer. Instead, it is done in a special register of ALU called accumulator. Thus if we need to add two numbers, we need a directive that will command the control unit to place a number in the accumulator and additionally give another instruction to identify the operation.
Symbolic / Assembly Languages:
To reduce the burden, symbolic languages commonly known as assembly languages were developed in 1950 for second-generation computers.
This language allows the use of symbols or mnemonics that are two or three letters short for the work the instruction does. These are then translated using the symbolic equivalence table. To control registers etc., however, the disadvantages of using binaries have been removed.
(i) The assembler translates the function code equivalent to its machine code.
(ii) It provides absolute addresses to any symbolic address or label names.
(iii) It keeps each instruction in central memory.
(iv) It identifies the indirect address from the direct address and sets the appropriate bit in the address part of the instruction.
(v) It checks the syntax of each instruction and produces an error message.
(vi) It provides, optionally, a cross-reference table between all symbolic names and their absolute addresses.
(vii) It notifies the control unit to exit the program after correcting all errors.
Benefits of assembly languages
(i) They save time and reduce the extension compared to Machi language.
(ii) The number of errors is small and errors are easy to detect.
(iii) the assembly program is easier to modify than the machine program
Loss of assembly language
(i) Writing code is time-consuming.
(ii) Assembly languages are machine-dependent.
The disadvantages of using assembly language brought about the development of higher-level languages. Unlike assembly programs, higher-level language programs can be used with little modification. Higher-level languages are easier to learn than symbolic languages. They require less time to write, are easier to maintain, provide better documentation and are reduced to 4 or 5 low-level single statement statements in the structure.
The operating system is the main software component of the computer. It performs many functions and in very basic terms is an interface between your computer and the outside world. In the section about ware, a computer is described consisting of several components, including your monitor, keyboard, mouse, and other parts. The operating system provides an interface to these parts using what is referred to as the “driver”. This is why sometimes when you install a new printer or other pieces of hardware, you will ask the system to install more software called drivers.
Operating system type
There are several types of operating systems. The most common is Microsoft’s operating system.
1. Windows XP Professional Edition: A version used by many businesses on workstations. It has the potential to become a member of the corporate domain.
2. Windows XP Home Edition: A low-cost version of Windows XP that is intended for home use only and should not be used in a business.
3. Windows 2000: An improved version of the Windows NT operating system that works well at home and as a workstation in business. This includes technologies that allow hardware to be automatically detected and other enhancements on Windows NT.
4. Windows 2000: An improved version of the Windows NT operating system that works well at home and as a workstation in business. This includes technologies that allow hardware to be automatically detected and other enhancements on Windows NT.
5. Windows ME: An upgraded version from Windows 98 but it has historically been plagued with programming errors that can be frustrating for home users.
6. Windows 98: It was produced in two main versions. The first Windows 98 version suffered from programming errors, but the later Windows 98 version was better with the second version resolving several errors.
7. Windows NT: A version of Windows specifically for businesses providing better control over work station capabilities to help network administrators.
8. Windows 95: The first version of Windows since older Windows 3.x, terfaces for programs and versions offering better library functions.
There are other meaningful types of operating systems not created by Microsoft. The biggest problem with these operating systems is in the fact that not many application programs are written for them. However, if you can find the type of application program you are looking for, one of the systems listed below may be a good choice.
1. Unix: A system that has been around for many years and is very stable. It is primarily used as a server rather than as a workstation and should not be used by anyone who does not understand the system. This can be difficult to learn, Unix should normally run on a computer made by the same company that produces the software.
2. Linux: Linux is similar to Unix in operation but it is free. It should not be used by anyone who does not understand the system and it can be difficult to learn.
3. Apple Macintosh – Most recent versions are based on Unix but it has a good graphical interface, so it is both stable (often not crashes or there are as many to learn). A drawback of this system is that it can only be run on Apple-built hardware.
An operating system sometimes called an “OS“, is the main program that a computer uses to function properly. The operating system acts as a link between you, the user, and the programs you use on the computer. Different types of computers use different types of operating systems. Most of the computers used to run either Microsoft Windows or macOS. Whereas files can be shared between these two types of systems. They are usually incompatible